Geology

However, this article is just focus on Banded Iron Formation. Theory suggests BIFs are associated with the capture of oxygen released by photosynthetic processes by iron dissolved in ancient ocean water. Once nearly all the free iron was consumed in seawater, oxygen could gradually accumulate in the atmosphere, allowing an ozone layer to form. BIF deposits are extensive in many locations, occurring as deposits, hundreds to thousands of feet thick. During Precambrian time, BIF deposits probably extensively covered large parts of the global ocean basins. The BIFs we see today are only remnants of what were probably every extensive deposits. BIFs are the major source of the world’s iron ore and are found preserved on all major continental shield regions. Each layer is usually narrow millimeters to few centimeters. The rock has a distinctively banded appearance because of differently colored lighter silica- and darker iron-rich layers.

Banded

Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide.

The dating of geological formations is an example of a beneficial use of Review presents examples of young ages listed section of a natural science in micrograms per liter of .

Karst areas consist of chemically soluble rock such as limestone and gypsum. It can be associated with diamonds or gold. The size of the fragments ranges from sand- to cobble-size. The rocks that form from molten lava are classified as extrusive. Terms such as metallic, submetallic are standardized but subjective. Mafic rocks have specific gravities greater than 3.

The word mafic derives from the constituents magnesium and ferrum iron in Latin with an adjectival ending. The rocks are called intrusive if the magma solidifies below the surface. Magma that reaches the surface is called lava , and the rocks that form when lava solidifies above the surface are classified as extrusive.

10 Spectacular Geologic Formations And Events Of Ancient Earth

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.

We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.

Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.

Geochronology is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages.

The older, Late Proterozoic sedimentary sequence is comprised of the Grand Canyon Supergroup which consists of the Chaur Group, the Nankoweap Formation, the Unkar Group, and the Sixtymile Formation, and is only found in isolated patches along the main Colorado River corridor and some of its major tributaries Figure 2. Beginning about 1, million years ago and lasting about million years during the Late Proterozoic Era , approximately 13, feet of sediments and lava were deposited in coastal and shallow marine environments.

Basin-and-Range style crustal deformation beginning about million years ago lifted and tilted these rocks. Subsequent erosion removed these tilted layers from much of the Grand Canyon region leaving only wedge-shaped remnants preserved in large graben structures Figure 2 , mainly observed in the eastern parts of the canyon. These mudstones, sandstones, and limestones are widely distributed in the canyon, but total a mere 2, and 5, feet thick by comparison with Proterozoic rocks.

They offer a plethora of evidence interpreted as coastal and marine environments, including several significant marine incursions from the west, developed on a passive continental margin setting between about and million years ago. Rock formations from the Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian periods are present. The suite of sedimentary rocks exposed by the downcutting of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park includes an older Proterozoic sequence, and a younger Paleozoic sequence.

A geologic map of the eastern Grand Canyon area indicating the general outcrop locations of Proterozoic crystalline basement and Grand Canyon Super Group sedimentary rocks, sedimentary rocks of the Paleozoic sequence, and geologic structures; note the general juxtaposition of Supergroup rocks against bounding normal faults. Erosion has removed most Mesozoic Era sedimentary rocks from the region, although small remnants can be found, particularly in the western Grand Canyon.

Nearby rock outcrops, particularly to the north in the Grand Staircase area, suggest 4, to 8, feet of Mesozoic sedimentary layers once covered the Grand Canyon region, but were removed by uplift and erosion in the early Teritary. Cenozoic Era sediments and sedimentary rocks are limited to the western Grand Canyon and to stream terraces and travertine deposits found superimposed on older rocks near the Colorado River itself.

Lava flows and associated cinder cones comprise the majority of Cenozoic deposits.

Geology Glossary

The table of geologic time spans presented here agrees with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, and uses the standard color codes of the United States Geological Survey. Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that the Earth is about 4. The geological or deep time of Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period.

Different spans of time on the time scale are usually delimited by major geological or paleontological events, such as mass extinctions. For example, the boundary between the Cretaceous period and the Paleogene period is defined by the Cretaceous—Tertiary extinction event, which marked the demise of the dinosaurs and of many marine species.

Older periods which predate the reliable fossil record are defined by absolute age.

Oct 23,  · Studying and identifying formations is a key part of geology, and it allows geologists to do a number of things, from dating the landscape to identifying useful mineral deposits. Visualizing geological formations is easiest to do when one things about the landscape in cross section.

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.

At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates. The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists.

Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records. As one answer to his critics, Kelvin produced a completely independent estimate — this time for the age of the Sun. His result was in close agreement with his estimate of the age of the earth. The solar estimate was based on the idea that the energy supply for the solar radioactive flux is gravitational contraction.

Paleogeographic Method

De Vivo3, and J. Europe was the birthplace of geological sciences. The first writers who have contributed something of geological significance were the ancient Greek philosophers Adams , such as Thales of Miletus c. AD and many others.

Geologic Formations The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is a world-renowned showplace of geology. Geologic studies in the park began with the work of Newberry in , and continue today.

Upon encountering a new site, the archaeologist immediately requires information about its age in order to set it in context with other sites. In research into our heritage the conservationist or architect may be able to date the general period of a building he is working with from either the situation, materials of construction, type of timber joints or other stylistic features. Almost certainly the century or portion of a century when it was built may be assigned with some certainty.

However, as more and more work is done and increasing numbers of structures with complex constructional phases are encountered, the general features may not be sufficient to give the accuracy in dating that is currently required. If research into other sources of information also fails to throw light on the building’s history, resort may be made to the various scientific methods of dating.

This article outlines three of the most important methods currently used for dating buildings or, in a complex situation, the order of construction within the building. Each method has a distinct role in the investigation of historic buildings. None is infallible and before embarking on an extensive dating survey, due thought must be given to what might be achieved and which methods might be the more successful.

If necessary, seek advice. Whilst earlier types of wooden joints may be copied in later buildings and earlier styles may be reintroduced in later periods to confound the conservationist or historian, any reuse of older materials should become obvious by the use of the chronometrical methods described here.

Unreliability of Radiometric Dating and Old Age of the Earth

Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.

Radiometric Dating Radioisotope Dating of Rocks in the Grand Canyon Radioisotope Dating of Rocks in the Grand Canyon. by Dr. Andrew A. Snelling on June 1, Share: Email Using: Geological formations have names for ease of identification. The Vishnu Schist and other rocks of the Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite. See Karlstrom, K.E.

Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils. Whiston added comets to Burnet’s cosmogony as the source of the waters of the flood.

Lectures and Discourse of Earthquakes and Subterranean Eruptions. Hooke believed that the fossils were the remains of extinct species and could not be accounted for by the Flood. Using Descartes’s cosmology, the assumption that the earth was once entirely flooded, and the observation that the sea level was dropping three inches per century near his home, he calculated the age of the earth to be greater than 2 billion years.

Observation sur la Formation des Montagnards Pallas made extensive observations of Russian mountains.

Radiometric Dating – Geological Time (6/6)